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Basic Surveying - Theory & Practice

Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of points on or near the surface of the earth. It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances between objects, of measuring angles between lines, of determining the direction of lines, and of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. Along with the actual survey measurements are the mathematical calculations. Distances, angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas, and volumes are thus determined from the data of the survey. Survey data is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross sections, and diagrams.
Civil Engineering